Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Concepts of objectivity and bias were introduced: How do you remain objective in your observations? How do you ensure that your observations are free from - Writingforyou

Concepts of objectivity and bias were introduced: How do you remain objective in your observations? How do you ensure that your observations are free from


the concepts of objectivity and bias were introduced. Please respond to the following questions:

  1. How do you remain objective in your observations?
  2. How do you ensure that your observations are free from bias?

Your response should include information from our mini lecture and Standard 3 of the NAEYC professional competencies.

Your original post must be in your own words and incorporate the course content for the week. Your response should be no less than one paragraph in length (4-6 sentences), in complete sentences and utilize college level writing. 


Code of Ethical Conduct

and Statement of Commitment

Revised April 2005, Reaffirmed and Updated May 2011

A position statement of the National Association for the Education of Young Children

( Copyright © 2011 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children )


NAEYC recognizes that those who work with young

Endorsed by the Association for Childhood Education International and

Southern Early Childhood Association

Adopted by the National Association for Family Child Care

Core values

Standards of ethical behavior in early childhood care

children face many daily decisions that have moral and ethical implications. The NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving the principal ethical dilemmas encountered in early childhood care and education. The Statement of Commitment is not part of the Code but is a personal acknowledgement of an individual’s willingness to embrace the distinctive values and moral obligations of the field of early childhood care and education.

The primary focus of the Code is on daily practice with children and their families in programs for children from birth through 8 years of age, such as infant/toddler programs, preschool and prekindergarten programs, child care centers, hospital and child life settings, family child care homes, kindergartens, and primary classrooms. When the issues involve young children, then these provisions also apply to specialists who do not work directly with children, including program administrators, parent educators, early childhood adult educators, and officials with responsibility for program monitoring and licensing. (Note: See also the “Code of Ethi- cal Conduct: Supplement for Early Childhood Adult Educa-

and education are based on commitment to the follow – ing core values that are deeply rooted in the history of

the field of early childhood care and education. We have made a commitment to

· Appreciate childhood as a unique and valuable stage of the human life cycle

· Base our work on knowledge of how children develop and learn

· Appreciate and support the bond between the child and family

· Recognize that children are best understood and sup – ported in the context of family, culture,* community, and society

· Respect the dignity, worth, and uniqueness of each individual (child, family member, and colleague)

· Respect diversity in children, families, and colleagues

· Recognize that children and adults achieve their full potential in the context of relationships that are based on trust and respect

tors,” online at

pdf. and the “Code of Ethical Conduct: Supplement for Early Childhood Program Administrators,” online at http://www.

* The term culture includes ethnicity, racial identity, economic level, family structure, language, and religious and political beliefs,

which profoundly influence each child’s development and relation – ship to the world.

Conceptual framework

The Code sets forth a framework of professional respon – sibilities in four sections. Each section addresses an area of professional relationships: (1) with children, (2) with

families, (3) among colleagues, and (4) with the commu – nity and society. Each section includes an introduction

to the primary responsibilities of the early childhood

practitioner in that context. The introduction is followed by a set of ideals (I) that reflect exemplary professional practice and by a set of principles (P) describing prac – tices that are required, prohibited, or permitted.

The ideals reflect the aspirations of practitioners.

The principles guide conduct and assist practitioners in resolving ethical dilemmas.* Both ideals and principles are intended to direct practitioners to those questions

which, when responsibly answered, can provide the

basis for conscientious decision making. While the Code provides specific direction for addressing some ethical dilemmas, many others will require the practitioner to

combine the guidance of the Code with professional judgment.

The ideals and principles in this Code present a

shared framework of professional responsibility that affirms our commitment to the core values of our field.

The Code publicly acknowledges the responsibilities

that we in the field have assumed, and in so doing sup – ports ethical behavior in our work. Practitioners who

face situations with ethical dimensions are urged to seek guidance in the applicable parts of this Code and in the spirit that informs the whole.

Often “the right answer”—the best ethical course of

action to take—is not obvious. There may be no readily apparent, positive way to handle a situation. When one important value contradicts another, we face an ethical dilemma. When we face a dilemma, it is our professional responsibility to consult the Code and all relevant par – ties to find the most ethical resolution.

Section I

Ethical Responsibilities to Children

Childhood is a unique and valuable stage in the human life cycle. Our paramount responsibility is to provide

care and education in settings that are safe, healthy,

nurturing, and responsive for each child. We are commit –

ted to supporting children’s development and learning; respecting individual differences; and helping children learn to live, play, and work cooperatively. We are also

committed to promoting children’s self-awareness, com – petence, self-worth, resiliency, and physical well-being.


I-1.1—To be familiar with the knowledge base of early childhood care and education and to stay informed

through continuing education and training.

I-1.2—To base program practices upon current knowl –

edge and research in the field of early childhood educa – tion, child development, and related disciplines, as well as on particular knowledge of each child.

I-1.3—To recognize and respect the unique qualities, abilities, and potential of each child.

I-1.4—To appreciate the vulnerability of children and their dependence on adults.

I-1.5—To create and maintain safe and healthy settings that foster children’s social, emotional, cognitive, and physical development and that respect their dignity

and their contributions.

I-1.6—To use assessment instruments and strategies that are appropriate for the children to be assessed, that are used only for the purposes for which they

were designed, and that have the potential to benefit children.

I-1.7—To use assessment information to understand

and support children’s development and learning, to support instruction, and to identify children who may need additional services.

I-1.8—To support the right of each child to play and

learn in an inclusive environment that meets the needs of children with and without disabilities.

I-1.9—To advocate for and ensure that all children,

including those with special needs, have access to the support services needed to be successful.

I-1.10—To ensure that each child’s culture, language,

ethnicity, and family structure are recognized and val – ued in the program.

I-1.11—To provide all children with experiences in a language that they know, as well as support children in maintaining the use of their home language and in learning English.

I-1.12—To work with families to provide a safe and

smooth transition as children and families move from one program to the next.

( 2 ) ( Revised May 2011 ) ( NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct )

( Copyright © 2011 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children )

* There is not necessarily a corresponding principle for each ideal.


P-1.1Above all, we shall not harm children. We shall not participate in practices that are emotionally dam – aging, physically harmful, disrespectful, degrading, dangerous, exploitative, or intimidating to children. This principle has precedence over all others in this Code.

P-1.2—We shall care for and educate children in positive emotional and social environments that are cognitively stimulating and that support each child’s culture, lan – guage, ethnicity, and family structure.

P-1.3—We shall not participate in practices that discrimi – nate against children by denying benefits, giving special advantages, or excluding them from programs or

activities on the basis of their sex, race, national origin, immigration status, preferred home language, religious beliefs, medical condition, disability, or the marital

status/family structure, sexual orientation, or religious beliefs or other affiliations of their families. (Aspects of

this principle do not apply in programs that have a law – ful mandate to provide services to a particular popula – tion of children.)

P-1.4—We shall use two-way communications to involve all those with relevant knowledge (including families

and staff) in decisions concerning a child, as appropri – ate, ensuring confidentiality of sensitive information. (See also P-2.4.)

P-1.5—We shall use appropriate assessment systems, which include multiple sources of information, to

provide information on children’s learning and devel – opment.

P-1.6—We shall strive to ensure that decisions such as those related to enrollment, retention, or assignment to special education services, will be based on mul – tiple sources of information and will never be based

on a single assessment, such as a test score or a single observation.

P-1.7—We shall strive to build individual relationships with each child; make individualized adaptations in

teaching strategies, learning environments, and cur – ricula; and consult with the family so that each child benefits from the program. If after such efforts have

been exhausted, the current placement does not meet a child’s needs, or the child is seriously jeopardizing the ability of other children to benefit from the pro – gram, we shall collaborate with the child’s family and appropriate specialists to determine the additional

services needed and/ or the placement option(s) most likely to ensure the child’s success. (Aspects of this

principle may not apply in programs that have a lawful mandate to provide services to a particular population of children.)

P-1.8—We shall be familiar with the risk factors for and

symptoms of child abuse and neglect, including physi – cal, sexual, verbal, and emotional abuse and physical,

emotional, educational, and medical neglect. We shall know and follow state laws and community procedures that protect children against abuse and neglect.

P-1.9—When we have reasonable cause to suspect child abuse or neglect, we shall report it to the appropri –

ate community agency and follow up to ensure that

appropriate action has been taken. When appropriate, parents or guardians will be informed that the referral will be or has been made.

P-1.10—When another person tells us of his or her

suspicion that a child is being abused or neglected, we shall assist that person in taking appropriate action in order to protect the child.

P-1.11—When we become aware of a practice or situa – tion that endangers the health, safety, or well-being of children, we have an ethical responsibility to protect

children or inform parents and/ or others who can.

Section II

Ethical Responsibilities to Families

Families* are of primary importance in children’s de – velopment. Because the family and the early childhood practitioner have a common interest in the child’s well-

being, we acknowledge a primary responsibility to bring about communication, cooperation, and collaboration

between the home and early childhood program in ways that enhance the child’s development.


I-2.1—To be familiar with the knowledge base related to working effectively with families and to stay informed through continuing education and training.

I-2.2—To develop relationships of mutual trust and cre – ate partnerships with the families we serve.

I-2.3—To welcome all family members and encourage

them to participate in the program, including involve – ment in shared decision making.

* The term family may include those adults, besides parents, with the responsibility of being involved in educating, nurturing, and

advocating for the child.

I-2.4—To listen to families, acknowledge and build upon their strengths and competencies, and learn from

families as we support them in their task of nurturing children.

I-2.5—To respect the dignity and preferences of each

family and to make an effort to learn about its struc – ture, culture, language, customs, and beliefs to ensure a culturally consistent environment for all children and families.

I-2.6—To acknowledge families’ childrearing values and their right to make decisions for their children.

I-2.7—To share information about each child’s educa – tion and development with families and to help them understand and appreciate the current knowledge base of the early childhood profession.

I-2.8—To help family members enhance their under – standing of their children, as staff are enhancing their understanding of each child through communications

with families, and support family members in the con – tinuing development of their skills as parents.

I-2.9—To foster families’ efforts to build support net – works and, when needed, participate in building

networks for families by providing them with oppor – tunities to interact with program staff, other families, community resources, and professional services.


P-2.1—We shall not deny family members access to their child’s classroom or program setting unless access is

denied by court order or other legal restriction.

P-2.2—We shall inform families of program philosophy,

policies, curriculum, assessment system, cultural prac – tices, and personnel qualifications, and explain why we

teach as we do—which should be in accordance with our ethical responsibilities to children (see Section I).

P-2.3—We shall inform families of and, when appropri – ate, involve them in policy decisions. (See also I-2.3.)

P-2.4—We shall ensure that the family is involved in sig – nificant decisions affecting their child. (See also P-1.4.)

P-2.5—We shall make every effort to communicate effec – tively with all families in a language that they under –

stand. We shall use community resources for transla – tion and interpretation when we do not have sufficient resources in our own programs.

P-2.6—As families share information with us about their children and families, we shall ensure that families’ input

is an important contribution to the planning and imple – mentation of the program.

P-2-7—We shall inform families about the nature and

purpose of the program’s child assessments and how data about their child will be used.

P-2.8—We shall treat child assessment information con – fidentially and share this information only when there

is a legitimate need for it.

P-2.9—We shall inform the family of injuries and inci – dents involving their child, of risks such as exposures to communicable diseases that might result in infec – tion, and of occurrences that might result in emotional stress.

P-2.10—Families shall be fully informed of any proposed research projects involving their children and shall

have the opportunity to give or withhold consent

without penalty. We shall not permit or participate in research that could in any way hinder the education, development, or well-being of children.

P-2.11—We shall not engage in or support exploitation of families. We shall not use our relationship with a

family for private advantage or personal gain, or enter into relationships with family members that might im – pair our effectiveness working with their children.

P-2.12—We shall develop written policies for the protec – tion of confidentiality and the disclosure of children’s

records. These policy documents shall be made avail – able to all program personnel and families. Disclosure of children’s records beyond family members, program personnel, and consultants having an obligation of

confidentiality shall require familial consent (except in cases of abuse or neglect).

P-2.13—We shall maintain confidentiality and shall re – spect the family’s right to privacy, refraining from dis – closure of confidential information and intrusion into

family life. However, when we have reason to believe

that a child’s welfare is at risk, it is permissible to share confidential information with agencies, as well as with individuals who have legal responsibility for interven – ing in the child’s interest.

P-2.14—In cases where family members are in conflict with one another, we shall work openly, sharing our observations of the child, to help all parties involved

make informed decisions. We shall refrain from becom – ing an advocate for one party.

P-2.15—We shall be familiar with and appropriately refer families to community resources and professional sup – port services. After a referral has been made, we shall follow up to ensure that services have been appropri – ately provided.

( Section III )

Ethical Responsibilities to Colleagues

In a caring, cooperative workplace, human dignity is re – spected, professional satisfaction is promoted, and posi – tive relationships are developed and sustained. Based

upon our core values, our primary responsibility to

colleagues is to establish and maintain settings and rela – tionships that support productive work and meet profes – sional needs. The same ideals that apply to children also

apply as we interact with adults in the workplace. (Note: Section III includes responsibilities to co-workers and to employers. See the “Code of Ethical Conduct: Supple – ment for Early Childhood Program Administrators” for responsibilities to personnel ( employees in the original 2005 Code revision), online at


A—Responsibilities to co-workers


I-3A.1—To establish and maintain relationships of re – spect, trust, confidentiality, collaboration, and coop – eration with co-workers.

I-3A.2—To share resources with co-workers, collaborat – ing to ensure that the best possible early childhood

care and education program is provided.

I-3A.3—To support co-workers in meeting their profes – sional needs and in their professional development.

I-3A.4—To accord co-workers due recognition of profes – sional achievement.


P-3A.1—We shall recognize the contributions of col –

leagues to our program and not participate in practices that diminish their reputations or impair their effec – tiveness in working with children and families.

P-3A.2—When we have concerns about the professional behavior of a co-worker, we shall first let that person know of our concern in a way that shows respect for

personal dignity and for the diversity to be found

among staff members, and then attempt to resolve the matter collegially and in a confidential manner.

P-3A.3—We shall exercise care in expressing views regarding the personal attributes or professional

conduct of co-workers. Statements should be based on firsthand knowledge, not hearsay, and relevant to the interests of children and programs.

P-3A.4—We shall not participate in practices that dis –

criminate against a co-worker because of sex, race, na – tional origin, religious beliefs or other affiliations, age, marital status/family structure, disability, or sexual


B—Responsibilities to employers


I-3B.1—To assist the program in providing the highest quality of service.

I-3B.2—To do nothing that diminishes the reputation of the program in which we work unless it is violating

laws and regulations designed to protect children or is violating the provisions of this Code.


P-3B.1—We shall follow all program policies. When we do not agree with program policies, we shall attempt

to effect change through constructive action within the organization.

P-3B.2—We shall speak or act on behalf of an organiza – tion only when authorized. We shall take care to ac – knowledge when we are speaking for the organization and when we are expressing a personal judgment.

P-3B.3—We shall not violate laws or regulations de – signed to protect children and shall take appropriate action consistent with this Code when aware of such violations.

P-3B.4—If we have concerns about a colleague’s be –

havior, and children’s well-being is not at risk, we may address the concern with that individual. If children

are at risk or the situation does not improve after it has been brought to the colleague’s attention, we shall re – port the colleague’s unethical or incompetent behavior to an appropriate authority.

P-3B.5—When we have a concern about circumstances or conditions that impact the quality of care and

education within the program, we shall inform the program’s administration or, when necessary, other appropriate authorities.

Section IV

Ethical Responsibilities to Community and Society

Early childhood programs operate within the context of their immediate community made up of families and other institutions concerned with children’s welfare.

Our responsibilities to the community are to provide programs that meet the diverse needs of families, to

cooperate with agencies and professions that share the responsibility for children, to assist families in gaining

access to those agencies and allied professionals, and to assist in the development of community programs that are needed but not currently available.

As individuals, we acknowledge our responsibility to provide the best possible programs of care and educa – tion for children and to conduct ourselves with honesty and integrity. Because of our specialized expertise

in early childhood development and education and

because the larger society shares responsibility for the welfare and protection of young children, we acknowl – edge a collective obligation to advocate for the best

interests of children within early childhood programs

and in the larger community and to serve as a voice for young children everywhere.

The ideals and principles in this section are presented to distinguish between those that pertain to the work of the individual early childhood educator and those that more typically are engaged in collectively on behalf of

the best interests of children—with the understanding

that individual early childhood educators have a shared responsibility for addressing the ideals and principles

that are identified as “collective.”

Ideal (Individual)

1-4.1—To provide the community with high-quality early childhood care and education programs and services.

Ideals (Collective)

I-4.2—To promote cooperation among professionals and agencies and interdisciplinary collaboration among

professions concerned with addressing issues in the health, education, and well-being of young children, their families, and their early childhood educators.

I-4.3—To work through education, research, and advo – cacy toward an environmentally safe world in which all children receive health care, food, and shelter; are

nurtured; and live free from violence in their home and their communities.

I-4.4—To work through education, research, and ad – vocacy toward a society in which all young children have access to high-quality early care and education programs.

I-4.5—To work to ensure that appropriate assessment

systems, which include multiple sources of informa – tion, are used for purposes that benefit children.

I-4.6—To promote knowledge and understanding of young children and their needs. To work toward

greater societal acknowledgment of children’s rights and greater social acceptance of responsibility for the well-being of all children.

I-4.7—To support policies and laws that promote the well-being of children and families, and to work to

change those that impair their well-being. To partici – pate in developing policies and laws that are needed, and to cooperate with families and other individuals

and groups in these efforts.

I-4.8—To further the professional development of the field of early childhood care and education and to

strengthen its commitment to realizing its core values as reflected in this Code.

Principles (Individual)

P-4.1—We shall communicate openly and truthfully

about the nature and extent o