Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Read Exhibit 7.1, page 222 in the textbook. Additionally, conduct independent research on Mark Hamm’s collection of data on the American skinhead culture (see Topic Materials) . Cr - Writingforyou

Read Exhibit 7.1, page 222 in the textbook. Additionally, conduct independent research on Mark Hamm’s collection of data on the American skinhead culture (see Topic Materials) . Cr


Read Exhibit 7.1, page 222 in the textbook. Additionally, conduct independent research on Mark Hamm’s collection of data on the American skinhead culture (see Topic Materials) . Create an analysis of 750-1,000 words regarding Hamm’s study. Make sure to include a 150 word abstract in the beginning.  Address the following:

  • Explain how Mark Hamm collected data on American skinheads in 1989. What was unexpected in his attempts to collect data on this group?
  • How did Hamm attempt to use the Internet to further his data collection, and why might this effort have yielded better results today?
  • Were Hamm’s data collection techniques ethical and objective? Explain.

Be sure to cite three to five relevant scholarly sources in support of your content. Make sure that research is well incorporated into the analysis. My teacher wants to see extensive research and scholarly writing. 

1886845 – Pearson Education Limited ©

222222 chapter chapter sevenseven pparticipant articipant obserobservvation ation and and case case studiesstudies

anonymity anonymity were were promised promised in in encouraging encouraging respondents respondents to to reconstruct reconstruct theirtheir past past burglaries burglaries as as accurately accurately as as possible. possible. Such Such insider insider accounts accounts are are very very usefuluseful in in acquainting acquainting researchers researchers with with the the perspectives perspectives of of the the subjects subjects (Cromwell,(Cromwell, 1996). 1996). Exhibit Exhibit 7.1 7.1 describes describes gaining gaining access access in in a a study study of of skinheads.skinheads.

In In 2008, 2008, the the Pew Pew Center Center on on the the States States reported reported that that more more than than one one inin hundred hundred American American adults adults was was incarcerated, incarcerated, the the largest largest per per capita capita rate rate in in thethe world. world. This This fact fact makes makes research research on on what what is is taking taking place place in in such such settings settings eveneven more more imperative. imperative. Scholars Scholars who who undertake undertake ethnographic ethnographic research research in in prisonsprisons complain complain of of growing growing hurdles hurdles to to doing doing such such investigations. investigations. These These includeinclude


American American Skinheads: Skinheads: The The CriminologyCriminology and and ContrControl ol of of Hate Hate CrimeCrime

Entering Entering the the world world of of violenceviolence,, hate,hate, and and racial racial paranoia paranoia ofof

skinhead skinhead subculturesubculture,, “idiots “idiots with with ideologyideology,”,” contains contains moremore

than than the the usual usual challenge challenge to to field field researchersresearchers.. Similar Similar to to otherother

field field investigators investigators (T(Thompson,hompson, 1967;1967; YYablonskyablonsky, , 1962),1962), MarkMark

Hamm’Hamm’s s attempts attempts were were on on one one occasion occasion greeted greeted withwith

violenceviolence.. He He was was attackattacked ed by by mmembers embers of of the the American American FFrontront

at at the the corner corner of of Haight Haight and and Ashbury Ashbury in in San San FFranciscorancisco. . KickKickeded

in in the the shins shins with with a a pair pair of of steel-toed steel-toed Doc Doc Martens Martens was was hishis

punishment punishment for for having having been been seen seen conversing conversing with with anan

Indonesian Indonesian prostituteprostitute..

Hamm Hamm (1993,(1993, pppp. . 100–101) 100–101) describes describes his his method:method:

I I began began to to systematically systematically collect collect data data on on the the AmericanAmerican

skinheads skinheads in in the the fall fall of of 1989.1989. Drawing Drawing from from the the nativenative

field field study study approach,approach, I I started started the the investigation investigation byby

visiting visiting various various UU.S..S. cities cities where where I I tracked tracked downdown

skinheads skinheads in in their their natural natural habitat habitat (street (street cornerscorners,, bars,bars,

coffee coffee shopsshops,, record record stores,stores, survivalist survivalist outletsoutlets,, rockrock

concertsconcerts,, and and motorcycle motorcycle shops).shops). These These subjects subjects werewere

not not hard hard to to identifyidentify.. TThey hey had had shaved shaved heads heads and and worewore

white white power power and/or and/or Nazi Nazi regalia.regalia. TTwo wo skinheadsskinheads,, forfor

exampleexample,, were were tattooed tattooed in in the the middle middle of of their their fore-fore-

heads heads with with the the mark mark of of the the swastika.swastika. TTo o gain gain a a broaderbroader

context context for for the the research,research, I I used used the the same same methods methods toto

interview interview skinheads skinheads on on the the streets streets of of Montreal,Montreal,

VVancouverancouver,, London,London, Amsterdam Amsterdam and and Berlin.Berlin.

He He simply simply approached approached these these youths youths and and askasked ed ifif

they they would would consent consent to to an an interview interview in in a a research research projectproject

that that was was attempting attempting to to “set “set the the record record straight straight on on skin-skin-

headsheads..” ” No No electronic electronic devices devices were were used.used. Hamm Hamm offeredoffered

ten ten dollars dollars for for a a completed completed interviewinterview.. Another Another techniquetechnique

involved involved getting getting membership membership lists lists from from the the undergroundunderground

teen teen press press and and TTom om Metzger’Metzger’s s publicationpublication WAR WAR (White(White

Aryan Aryan Resistance)Resistance)..

After After sending sending letters letters to to twenty-six twenty-six skinhead skinhead leadersleaders

promising promising twenty-five twenty-five dollars dollars for for a a collect collect call call telephone telephone interinter–

viewview, , Hamm Hamm obtained obtained nine nine interviews interviews plus plus an an unexpectedunexpected

dividend.dividend. TThree hree additional additional unsolicited unsolicited leaders leaders heard heard aboutabout

the the research,research, called, called, and and were were interviewed.interviewed. NonrespondentsNonrespondents

were were sent sent five five copies copies of of a a questionnaire questionnaire and and askasked ed to to fill fill oneone

out out and and pass pass the the others others to to four four other other membersmembers,, and and theythey

would would be be paid paid ten ten dollarsdollars.. TThis his produced produced eight eight additionaladditional

usable usable questionnairesquestionnaires.. Using Using the the Internet,Internet, Hamm Hamm nextnext

logged logged onto onto thethe WARWAR board.board. He He identified identified himself himself as as a a soci-soci-

ologist ologist with with no no axe axe to to grind grind and and offered offered ten ten dollars dollars to to anyany

skinhead skinhead who who came came online online and and conversed.conversed. TThhis is yielded yielded twotwo

responsesresponses.. FFinallyinally, , Hamm Hamm used used the the prison prison field field methodsmethods

approach approach and,and, with with the the cooperation cooperation of of authorities,authorities, was was ableable

to to interview interview incarcerated incarcerated skinheads skinheads in in four four statesstates.. HammHamm

(1993,(1993, pppp. . 102–103) 102–103) concludes:concludes:

In In summarysummary, , then,then, I I conducted conducted thirty-six thirty-six original original skin-skin-

head head interviews interviews using using native native field field methodsmethods,, clandes-clandes-

tine tine community community agency agency techniquestechniques,, and and prison prison fieldfield

study study strategiesstrategies.. I I controlled controlled for for paranoia paranoia by by primarilyprimarily

focusing focusing on on subcultural subcultural leaders—or leaders—or core core membersmembers

who who are are liklikely ely to to display display the the highest highest rates rates and and sever-sever-

ity ity of of hate hate crime crime violence—and violence—and by by presenting presenting myselfmyself

as as a a sociologist sociologist operating operating independent independent of of lawlaw

enforcement enforcement and and community community service service agenciesagencies.. TheThe

early early Haight Haight street street assault assault notwithstanding,notwithstanding, I I experi-experi-

enced enced no no life-threatening life-threatening violenceviolence..

SourceSource :: Hamm, Hamm, Mark Mark SS.. American American Skinheads: Skinheads: The The Criminology Criminology and and Control Control of of Hate Hate CrimeCrime .. Westport,Westport, CTCT: : PraegerPraeger, , 1993.1993.