THIS ASSIGNMENT IS THE CONTINUATION OF THE PART 1 ATTACHED BELOW, PLEASE READ PART 1 AND CONTINUE WITH THE STEPS 5 TO 9.
TOPIC: High Blood Pressure in the Elderly Population in Miami, FL
5. Propose a health promotion program using an evidence-based intervention found in your literature search to address the problem in the selected population/setting. Include a thorough discussion of the specifics of this intervention which include resources necessary, those involved, and feasibility for a nurse in an advanced role. Be certain to include a timeline. (2 to 4 paragraph. You may use bullets if appropriate).
6. Thoroughly describe the intended outcomes. Describe the outcomes in detail concurrent with the SMART goal approach. (1 paragraph).
7. Provide a detailed plan for evaluation for each outcome. (1 paragraph).
8. Thoroughly describe possible barriers/challenges to implementing the proposed project as well as strategies to address these barriers/challenges. (1 paragraph).
9. Conclude the paper with a Conclusion paragraph. Don’t type the word “Conclusion”. Here you will share your insights about this strategy and your expectations regarding achieving your goals. (1 paragraph).
TOTAL OF 3 PAGES
ADD 3 SCHOLARLY REFERENCES TO THIS PART, AND PUT ALL THE ASSIGNMENT IN ONE DOCUMENT
NO PLAGIO MORE THAN 10%
DUE DATE FEBRUARY 12, 2024
Case Study Part 1
Health Promotion Program
High Blood Pressure in the Elderly Population in Miami, FL
The leading modifiable risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. A higher blood
pressure level is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, renal disease, stroke,
and heart failure. At least one-third of the adult population in the US is living with hypertension,
and even more of that percentage is the elderly population (Mathew et al., 2023). High blood
pressure is commonly called the "silent killer" as it seldom causes noticeable symptoms. Having
your blood pressure measured is the only sure approach to detect hypertension. Although
hypertension is more prevalent in adults over the age of 50, it may affect persons of any gender
or age. Lifestyle adjustments, such as maintaining an active lifestyle, eating a heart-healthy diet,
reducing alcohol use, not smoking, and managing weight, may help regulate blood pressure. This
proposal will help address this issue by having a comprehensive health promotion program
tailored to meet this group of patients' unique needs in Miami (Mathew et al.,2023). The
projected outcome is having a quantifiable enhancement in blood pressure levels within the
target population, eventually helping mitigate the risk of associated complications, which include
cardiovascular diseases. By implementing these interventions in the targeted group and
committing to measurable outcomes, the proposed health promotion program will make a
meaningful impact on the well-being of the elderly population affected by high blood pressure in
the Miami community.
Selected Condition and PICOT Question
Population (P): Elderly individuals aged 55 and above in Miami, FL.
Intervention (I): Implementing a comprehensive health promotion program for managing high
Comparison (C): Standard care.
Outcome (O): reduced blood pressure levels and prevention of complications.
Time (T): For 12months
For Elderly individuals aged 55 and above in Miami, FL.(P), does Implementing a
comprehensive health promotion program for managing high blood pressure (I), compared
to standard care (C), lead to reduced blood pressure levels and prevention of
complications? (O) over 12 months (T)?
This Health Promotion Program aims to reach the elderly aged 55 years and above in
Miami, Florida. This age group is very vulnerable to many risk factors due to the changing
physiological alterations that come as a person gets old, changing patterns of behavior and
lifestyle, and as well as having coexisting medical conditions. This age group has difficulties that
relate to having problems accessing healthcare services, adhering to prescription medications,
and adopting healthy practices (Mathew et al., 2023). It is also essential to consider
socioeconomic issues like having constrained financial resources and lower levels of educational
achievement, as these elements are linked to intensifying an individual's vulnerability to
developing high blood pressure.
Recognizing the elderly as a susceptible demographic is directly linked to ageism and
may evoke paternalistic kindness and an inclination towards excessive safeguarding, particularly
in the medical field. Beyond the fact that the elderly may have a greater need for medical
attention, which puts them in a more precarious position, ageism is the primary cause of their
vulnerability. This leads us to believe that ageism is a social and, by extension, healthcare
provider issue and not a group feature that makes the elderly more susceptible to harm.
Review of Literature
In an investigation and synthesis of prior research by utilizing systematic review and
meta-analysis approaches done by Seah et al. (2020), the study examined the efficiency and
effectiveness of community-based self-care interventions customized for older adults suffering
from high blood pressure. In this study, the authors looked at the potential benefits of
community-based therapy that helps improve older adults' physical, psychological, and
behavioral well-being. The findings of this study will stress the implication of community
involvement in fostering favorable health results for elderly adults. According to Seah et al.
(2020), Healthy eating, regular exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), taking
diabetes medication as prescribed, dealing with symptoms and complications, and regular
follow-up appointments are all parts of self-care for type 2 diabetes. In nations with lower life
expectancy, self-care treatments have been rolled out, focusing on people 50 and over, as defined
by the World Health Organisation. Polypharmacy, functional impairments, cognitive impairment,
and fall risk are prevalent aging disorders that disproportionately affect this population.
On top of that, the percentage of older adults living alone who have diabetes has
increased over the last several decades. It will be vital to understand the effectiveness of self-care
in managing diabetes for this population since they will have to handle their illness without a
carer. Since the authors showed that community-based activities improve older individuals'
health and well-being, the proposed health promotion campaign should include them.
Elderly hypertension is linked to mortality, heart failure, stroke, and myocardial
infarction, according to Oliveros et al. (2020). Due to an aging population and rising obesity,
experts predict one-third of the world population will have hypertension by 2025. Arterial
stiffness, mechanical hemodynamic alterations, neurohormonal and autonomic dysregulation,
and renal decline affect senior outcomes. This paper presents the latest information and
recommendations for treating geriatric hypertension. The study indicated that geriatric
hypertension therapy must be customized due to the patient's frailty, medical comorbidities, and
psychosocial factors. Promotion of non-pharmacological lifestyle changes may reduce
medication use and hypertension. Calcium channel blockers, renin-angiotensin system blockers,
and diuretics may improve elderly cardiovascular outcomes. Lifestyle changes in younger
generations are needed to avoid hypertension in older adults, a worldwide health and economic
burden. The study emphasizes the need for tailored treatment to help older persons regulate their
blood pressure. This is a significant advance in improving this susceptible group's cardiovascular
health and general well-being.
Model from Theory or Concepts
This research used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to evaluate hyperlipidemia and
hypertension self-management knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs in older Miami residents (55
and older). We may use the HBM's constructs—perceived vulnerability, severity, barriers,
benefits, and cues-to-action—to develop therapies that promote health-enhancing behaviors in
these people. Patients with high blood pressure and cholesterol should stay active, eat a heart-
healthy diet, quit smoking, and take their medicines as directed (Zheng et al., 2021). Changes in
behavior and way of life like these have helped people with this illness have fewer adverse
effects. Therefore, this theoretical model will help patients make informed decisions regarding
their health and take proactive measures to help them manage their conditions effectively. This
theoretical framework will also help empower older persons to proactively manage their blood
pressure and mitigate the risk of problems associated with hypertension through integrating
evidence-based interventions and employing the Health Belief Model as a theoretical framework.
Mathew, A., Mesa, R. A., Nahodyl, L., Tremblay, J., Rundek, T., Zeki Al Hazzouri, A., & Elfassy,
T. (2023). Differences in Systolic Blood Pressure Among US Adults and Diastolic Blood
Pressure and Cognitive Functioning. 15333175231172283, American Journal of
Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias®, p. 38.
Oliveros, E., Madan, N., Goldberg, A., Patel, H., Kyung, S., Fugar, S., & Williams, K. A. (2020).
Assessment, treatment, and obstacles related to hypertension in older persons. 99–107 in
Clinical Cardiology, 43(2).
Seah, S. J., Zheng, H., & Lim, R. B. T. (2020). The effectiveness of community-based self-care
treatments in enhancing the biophysical, psychological, or behavioral outcomes of older
adults with type 2 diabetes who reside in the community was investigated by a systematic
review and meta-analysis. Diabetes: Research and Clinical Practice, p. 169, 108411.