Chat with us, powered by LiveChat For this assignment develop criteria 5-8 as detailed below: You will submit just this section 5-8 . Please do not resubmit Part 1. Use a presentation page. Start the body of - Writingforyou

For this assignment develop criteria 5-8 as detailed below:  You will submit just this section 5-8 . Please do not resubmit Part 1.  Use a presentation page. Start the body of

For this assignment develop criteria 5-8 as detailed below: 

You will submit just this section 5-8 . Please do not resubmit Part 1. 

Use a presentation page. Start the body of content with topic 5.

  • 5. Propose a health promotion program using an evidence-based intervention found in your literature search to address the problem in the selected population/setting. Include a thorough discussion of the specifics of this intervention which include resources necessary, those involved, and feasibility for a nurse in an advanced role. 
  • Be certain to include a timeline. (2 to 4 paragraphs- you may use bullets if appropriate). 
  • 6. Thoroughly describe the intended outcomes. Describe the outcomes in detail concurrent with the SMART goal approach. 
  • The SMART goal statement should be no more than one sentence (1 paragraph). 
  • 7. Provide a detailed plan for evaluation for each outcome. (1 paragraph). 
  • 8. Thoroughly describe possible barriers/challenges to implementing the proposed project as well as strategies to address these barriers/challenges. (1 paragraph). 
  • Finish the paper with a conclusion paragraph (1 paragraph) without typing the word "conclusion" before the paragraph. 

Paper Requirements Your assignment should be up to 3(excluding title page and references).

 Remember, your Proposal must be a scholarly paper demonstrating graduate school level writing and critical analysis of existing nursing knowledge about health promotion. 

Finish  with a your reference page no older than 5 years

just submit document from 5 to 8 steps 



Health Promotion Proposal Part 1 1

Health Promotion Proposal Part 1

Lung Cancer

Health Promotion Proposal Part 1 2

Health Promotion Proposal- Lung Cancer

Lung cancer remains a severe health concern, with a high occurrence among the elderly,

particularly those who have previously smoked (Adams et al., 2023). This issue is becoming

increasingly concerning in Miami, Florida, due to demographic and lifestyle issues. This disease

is the top cause of cancer-related mortalities globally and also has a substantial health impact in

the United States. In 2020, approximately 228,820 new instances of lung cancer were reported in

the United States, with around 135,720 fatalities underscoring the severity of the disease

(Thandra et al., 2021). The elderly, particularly those over 65, are disproportionately afflicted,

with an average age at diagnosis of roughly 70 years (Thandra et al., 2021). This age group is

particularly vulnerable in Miami, which has a large elderly population. The high prevalence of

lung cancer in this population is primarily due to prolonged exposure to risk factors, particularly

smoking. In Florida, the age-adjusted lung cancer incidence rate is around 50.5 per 100,000

individuals which is higher than the national average (Florida Department of Health, 2024). This

percentage is significantly more concerning among the elderly, particularly those with a history

of smoking. The suggested health promotion program intends to address this serious issue by

emphasizing lung cancer prevention and early diagnosis among Miami's older smokers. The goal

is to reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality by 25% over the next five years by focused

interventions such as smoking cessation support, information campaigns regarding early signs

and symptoms, and promotion of regular screening among high-risk persons. The program's

success will be measured in terms of decreased smoking rates, increased participation in lung

cancer screening, and, ultimately, a drop in lung cancer incidence and mortality rates among this


Health Promotion Proposal Part 1 3

Description of the Vulnerable Population

Older adults in Miami who have a history of smoking are a susceptible demographic for a

variety of reasons. First, age is a crucial risk factor for lung cancer; the majority of patients

diagnosed with the disease are 65 years or older (Adams et al., 2023). This age group's

physiological deterioration renders individuals more vulnerable to cancer and less capable of

recovery. Second, a history of smoking dramatically raises the risk. About 80% to 90% of lung

cancer occurrences are attributed to smoking, making it the most common cause of the disease

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2023). In Miami, where smoking has long been

considered culturally acceptable, elderly persons are more likely to have had prolonged exposure

to tobacco, thus increasing their risk. Also, socioeconomic factors such as access to healthcare

and educational inequality contribute to this susceptibility by influencing both the likelihood of

continued smoking and the capability for early cancer diagnosis.

Literature Review

A review of recent literature underscores the importance of targeted interventions. The

study by Krist et al. (2021) marks a significant advancement in lung cancer screening protocols.

It recommends annual “low-dose computed tomography” (LDCT) screenings for adults aged

50-80 who have a substantial smoking history. This suggestion emerged from a systematic

review and a modeling study highlighting the moderate net benefit of annual LDCT screening in

diminishing lung cancer mortality among high-risk groups.

Another significant study by Hawrysz et al. (2022) delves into lung cancer risk in men,

mainly focusing on compliance with the cancer preventive guidelines published in "2018 World

Health Promotion Proposal Part 1 4

Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR)”. This research

found that adherence to these recommendations, especially the aspect of limiting smoking, was

linked to a notably lower risk of lung cancer. The study's strength lies in its comprehensive

approach, considering lifestyle and dietary factors alongside smoking habits. However, it focuses

predominantly on male subjects, which may not wholly represent the diverse demographics of

elderly smokers, especially in a multicultural community like Miami.

The study by Krist et al. (2021) is commendable for its robust methodology and

impactful recommendations. The strength of this recommendation lies in its evidence-based

approach underpinned by comprehensive data analysis and modeling, thus providing a clear

guideline for lung cancer screening. However, the recommendation's applicability may be limited

by its dependency on patient adherence to annual screenings and the need for healthcare systems

to support the widespread implementation of LDCT screening programs.

The study by Hawrysz et al. (2022) provides a comprehensive view of prevention,

particularly highlighting the role of lifestyle changes. Its strength is demonstrating the tangible

benefits of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. However, the study's limitation is its

potential over-reliance on self-reported data, which may introduce biases. Additionally, while it

establishes a clear link between lifestyle changes and reduced cancer risk, it does not address the

challenges of implementing these changes at a population level, particularly in diverse

communities like Miami, Florida.

Health Promotion Model

Health Promotion Proposal Part 1 5

The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of Behavior Change is an ideal framework for this

health promotion proposal. TTM recognizes that behavior change, particularly smoking

cessation, is a process that involves several stages: pre-contemplation, contemplation,

preparation, action, and maintenance (Chang et al., 2024). The first step, "pre-contemplation,"

takes into account the fact that many older smokers may not want to quit at first. The first step is

to make older people more aware of the risks of continuing to smoke and the benefits of giving

up altogether. Then, precisely planned interventions can be made to deal with the problems and

drive behind each stage of change. For example, in the contemplation stage, people can be

encouraged to think about quitting by using educational materials and motivational interviews.

During the action and maintenance stages of the TTM, the program will offer tools like support

groups and ways to stop smoking. This method is essential for older people because it considers

their specific problems, like having solid habits and not wanting to change.

TTM also stresses how important it is to avoid relapse, which is especially important for

older people who may have long-standing smoking habits (Chang et al., 2024). Support groups,

therapy, and follow-up can be added to the program to help people in the maintenance stage,

which is essential for making sure that quitting smoking lasts. This plan is excellent for lowering

the risk of lung cancer in Miami's older smokers because it is flexible and focuses on each

person's readiness.

Health Promotion Proposal Part 1 6


Adams, S. J., Lee, P., Vliegenthart, R., Stone, E., Baldwin, D. R., & Fintelmann, F. J. (2023).

Screening for lung cancer. The Lancet, 390–408, 401(10374). 10.1016/

S0140-6736(22)01694-4 is the DOI.

The Centers for Disease Prevention and Control. (2023). What Are the Lung Cancer Risk


Chang, Y.-H., Fu, C.-H., Hsu, M.-H., Okoli, C., & Guo, S.-E. (2024). The effectiveness of a

transtheoretical model-based smoking cessation intervention for rural smokers: A quasi-

experimental longitudinal study. Patient Education and Counseling. Advanced online


Chandra, K. C., Barsouk, A., Saginala, K., Aluru, J. S., & Barsouk, A. (2021). Epidemiology of

lung cancer. Contemporary Oncology (Poznan, Poland), 25(1), 45–52.


Health Promotion Proposal Part 1 7

Florida Department of Health. (2024). Lung cancer incidence. Retrieved from https://

w w w . f l h e a l t h c h a r t s . g o v / C h a r t s D a s h b o a r d s / r d P a g e . a s p x ?


Slowinska, M. A., Czerwinska, A., Wadolowska, L., Hawrysz, I., & Golota, J. J. (2022). Men's

Lung Cancer Risk and Adherence to the 2018 WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention

Guideline. 4295 in Nutrients, 14(20)

US Preventive Services Task Force, together with Caughey, A. B., Cabana, M., Barry, M. J.,

Mangione, C. M., Davidson, K. W., and Krist, A. H. (2021). Lung cancer screening is

advised by the US Preventive Services Task Force. Jama; 325(10), 962-970.