Three parts to this assignment you must first respond to the professor. one page long with reference. come with a thesis supporting the answer. You then must come up with your on question and after completed respond to one student with a thesis with reference. You must complete responding to the professor first. which question is below. All materials needeare attachedd to this question. I only could pay what I can please dont ask for more this is what I can afford thanks.
Professor Question- What do the primary sources found in Sources, chapter 4, reveal about the increased interactions between Greeks and others peoples as well as the place and status of men and women in antiquity?
Make use of the epigrams on love and sex by women poets found in the textbook.
Ancient Greece (1750 B.C. – 133 B.C.)
The Minoans established a brilliant early civilization on the island of Crete.
The Minoans traded with Egypt and Mesopotamia. They acquired ideas and technology that they adapted to their own culture.
The Minoans helped to shape the first Greek civilization. Fresco in the Knossos Palace on Crete
Minoan Civilization began on the Island of Crete
Minoan History c. 3000 B.C., Crete was settled by a people from Asia Minor By 2000 B.C. they lived in cities and traded with other nations in
the Mediterranean. They had a written hieroglyphic language that evolved into a
linear form. They built magnificent palace centers at Knossos, Phaistros, and
Kato Zakros. Their government system was ruled by priests and consisted of
bureaucratic monarchies, who served as “chief entrepreneurs” or CEOs.
They built large navies of armored merchant ships and traded throughout Asia Minor and Egypt.
They had large multi-room homes – even the peasants. They are the first civilization that appears to have “leisure time.”
Bull-Jumping Fresco at the Palace of Knossos
Downfall of Cretans The concentration of wealth produced a
society with social equality, which was unknown in the in ancient world.
No gender inequality seems to have existed.
Palaces had no defensive works, throughout much of their history.
Their concentration of economic resources on mercantilism and their generous distribution of wealth among their people may have led to their downfall.
Earthquakes and volcanoes weakened their cities.
Eventually the Minoans were conquered by the Mycenaens .
Women in Minoan Civilization Crete was a class-based society with little inequality. Women played an important role in city public life, serving as
priestesses, functionaries, & administrators. They participated in all the sports men did, including bull-jumping. They also participated in every occupation & trade available to
men, including skilled crafts, entrepreneurs, bureaucracy, priesthood.
Fresco of Women at Knossos Palace in Crete
The Mycenaens The Mycenaens conquered
the Greek mainland and Crete.
Mycenaen civilization dominated the Aegean from about 1400 B.C. to 1200 B.C.
They traded with Sicily, Italy, Egypt, and Mesopotamia.
Mycenaens absorbed Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences and passed them on to later Greeks.
The Late Helladic Period Most of what we know about this
culture comes from Homer’s epics.
The archeological sites at Troy and Mycenae indicate a strong influence on their culture from the Minoans.
There were differences. The government consisted of monarchs who ruled over large administrations.
Mycenean kings accumulated vast wealth, but it was not shared by the rest of society.
Mycenean kings were warlords, constantly ready for battle or invasion.
Cities had heavy defenses.Mask of Agamemnon
Early Myceneans had a sky-god, who would become Zeus.
Later, they adopted the Minoan goddesses.
Offerings and sacrifices were made to the gods, and may have involved human sacrifices.
The Greek Dark Ages Between 1200 and 1100 BC populations
in cities dwindled & they could no longer support artisans and craftsmen.
Writing was abandoned leaving no history to explain it the 500 years of mystery.
Greeks returned to an agricultural or nomadic life in small tribal groups.
Many Greeks took to the sea and migrated to the islands of the Aegean.
Dorians, invaders from the north, soon followed bringing new weapons and tools.
The Epics of Homer “Every man make up his mind to fight And move on his enemy! Strong as I am,
It’s hard for me to face so many men And fight with all at once. . . .
And yet I will!” Homer, Iliad
The Iliad and the Odyssey reveal many of the values of ancient Greeks. Homer’s heroes display honor, courage, and eloquence.
The epics of Homer have been inspiring writers for almost 3,000 years.
The Ancient Greeks: How Democratic?
The Granger Collection, New York
Ancient Greece Greece is part of the Balkan
peninsula. Mountains divide the peninsula into isolated valleys. Off the Greek mainland are hundreds of small islands.
The geography of the region prevented the Greeks from creating a large, united empire. Instead, they built many small city-states, cut off from one another by mountains or water.
The seas linked the Greeks to the outside world. The Greeks became skilled sailors, traveling and trading all over the Mediterranean.
Greek City-States Develop The Greeks developed an alphabet based
on the Phoenician’s that became the basis for all western alphabets.
Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., the Greeks evolved different forms of government.
At first, the ruler was a king, who exercised central power, or a monarchy.
Slowly, power shifted to a class of noble landowners, who defended the king, but in time, they won power for themselves, creating an aristocracy.
As trade expanded, a new class of wealthy merchants, farmers, and artisans came to dominate some city-states, creating an oligarchy.Spartan Warrior
ATHENS SPARTA • Society grew into a limited
democracy, or government by the people.
• Only free, native-born, land- owning men could be citizens.
• Male citizens over age 30 were members of the assembly.
• Rulers encouraged trade with other city-states.
• Women were considered inferior.
• Boys received education in many areas, not just military training.
• Rulers were two kings and a council of elders.
• Rulers formed a military society.
• Conquered people were turned into slaves, called helots.
• Rulers forbade trade and travel.
• Male, native-born Spartans over age 30 were citizens.
• All boys received military training.
• Girls were raised to produce healthy sons for the army.
• Women had the right to inherit property.
The Acropolis Athena
Unifying Forces Local ties, independent spirit, and economic rivalries led to fighting among the Greek city-states. Despite these divisions, the Greeks shared a common culture.
They honored the same ancient heroes. They participated in common festivals. They prayed to the same gods. They shared the Greek language. They felt superior to non-Greeks, whom they called “barbaroi,”
people who did not speak Greek.
Despite their cultural ties, the Greek city-states were often in conflict with one another.
The threat of the powerful Persian empire united the Greek city- states.
The Persian Wars Darius I invaded Greece at
Marathon in 490 B.C. with a fleet containing 20,000 soldiers.
The Greeks waited out the Persians, attacking them as they tried to re-board their ships and won.
Pheidippides then ran 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to tell them of the success. He told this story and died. The marathon race was added to the Olympics to commemorate the event.
Later, Xerxes decided to attack Greece in order to take revenge for his father’s loss.
The Persian Wars (cont.) In 480 B.C. Xerxes took 180,000
troops and thousands of warships and supply vessels to attack Greece.
The Greeks joined forces to repel them.
Leonidas and his Spartan soldiers led a combined Greek army against the Persians at Thermopylae.
Athenian general Themistocles led the navy against the Persians at Salamis.
United, the city-states defeated the Persians and ended the threat of Persian invasions.
Ancient Greek Trireme
The Impact of the Persian Wars Victory over the Persians increased the Greeks’ sense of their
Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state.
Athens organized the Delian League, an alliance with other Greek city-states.
Athens used the Delian League to create an Athenian empire.
Sparta responded by forming the Peloponnesian League.
The Ancient Greeks: How Democratic? Section
The Granger Collection, New York
The Age of Pericles After the Persian Wars, under the leadership
of Pericles experienced a golden age.
Periclean Athens was a direct democracy. In this form of government, large numbers of citizens take part in the day-to-day affairs of government.
This meant that Athenian men participated in the assembly and served on juries.
Pericles hired architects and sculptors to rebuild the Acropolis, which the Persians had destroyed.
Pericles turned Athens into the cultural center of Greece. He did this with the help of an educated, foreign-born woman named Aspasia.
Pericles Funeral Oration
Pericles gave a speech at the funeral of Athenians slain in battle. This speech is considered one of the earliest and greatest expressions of democratic ideals.
“Our constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people.”
“We alone regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs, not as a harmless but as a useless character.”
The Peloponnesian War
• Many Greeks outside of Athens resented Athenian domination.
• Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League to rival the Delian League.
• Sparta encouraged oligarchy, while Athens supported democracy.
• Athenian domination of the Greek world ended.
• Athens recovered economically and remained the cultural center of Greece.
• Democratic government suffered.
• Corruption and selfish interests replaced older ideals such as service to the city-state.
Peloponnesian War Alliances
After the unconditional surrender of Athens, Sparta became the undisputed major power in Greece.
The Spartan general, Lysander, replaced the Athenian democracy with an oligarchy.
Proponents of democracy fled to Corinth and Thebes, while the Spartans ruled with an iron fist.
The Peloponnesian War weakened the Greek city-states, making them easier to conquer by Philip of Macedonia.
The Glory that Was Greece Guided by a belief in
reason, Greek Artists, writers, and philosophers used their genius to seek order in the universe. Homer wrote the Illiad and
the Odyssey. The greatest Athenian
playwrights, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, wrote tragedies.
Some Greek thinkers used observation and reason to find causes for what happened. The Greeks called these thinkers philosophers, meaning “lovers of wisdom.”
SOCRATES PLATO ARISTOTLE
Developed Socratic method, whereby a series of questions are posed in order to challenge implications of answers
Emphasized importance of reason
Believed the ideal state should regulate every aspect of citizens’ lives to provide for their best interest
Favored rule by single strong and virtuous leader
Taught that good conduct meant pursuing moderation
Greek Architects and Artists The work of Greek artists and architects reflected a concern with balance, order, and beauty.
ARCHITECTURE ART • Architects tried to
convey a sense of perfect balance to reflect the harmony of the universe.
• Example: The Parthenon
• Early sculptors imitated rigid Egyptian poses. • Later sculptors
emphasized natural poses that were lifelike but also idealistic. • Paintings offer views of
The Parthenon The original
inspiration for Greek architecture came from the Egyptians and was later passed on to the Romans.
The columns were built to lean in toward each other so that from a distance they would look straight.The most famous temple is the Parthenon.
Three Orders of Greek Architecture Simplest form of column. Capital made of circle topped by a
square. There is no base. The shaft is plain with 20 sides. The frieze had simple patterns. The Parthenon is an example.
Shafts were taller than the Doric, making them look more slender.
Had flutes, or lines carved into them from top to bottom.
Shafts had entasis, or a bulge, in the columns to make them look straight from a distance.
The bases were large and looked like stacked rings.
Capitals consist of scrolls above the shaft.
Three Orders of Greek Architecture
Temple of Athena Niki
Most decorative of orders. Uses entasis to make shafts look
straight. Capitals have flowers and leaves
below a small scroll. The shaft has flutes and the base is
like the Ionian. Corinthian roofs are flat.
Three Orders of Greek Architecture
The Temple of Sybil in Rome
Poetry and Drama Greek dramas were often based on popular myths and legends. Through these stories, playwrights discussed moral and social issues and the relationship between people and the gods.
Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides wrote tragedies, plays that told stories of human suffering that usually ended in disaster.
Aristophanes wrote comedies, humorous plays that mocked people or customs.
Theatre in Anatalya, Turkey
Euripides, writer of Greek Tragedies
Euripides, writer of Greek Tragedies
The Writing of History The Greeks applied reason, observation, and logic to the study of history.
Herodotus is called the “Father of History.”
Herodotus stressed the importance of research, while Thucydides showed the need to avoid bias.
Herodotus and Thucydides set standards for future historians.
Alexander the Great
Alexander was the son of Philip II of Macedon and Olympias.
He was taught first by Leonidas, who was a strict disciplinarian and later by the Greek philosopher, Aristotle.
By age 16, Alexander had served as regent of Macedonia, put down a rebellion, and named a city after himself.
Alexander the Great
Olympias Philip II of Macedonia
Alexander the Great Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece. He was assassinated before he could fulfill his dream of
conquering the Persian empire.
Philip’s son, Alexander, succeeded him to the throne in 336 B.C. at the age of 21.
Alexander won his first victory against the Persians at the Granicus River. He then conquered Asia
Minor, Palestine, Egypt, and Babylon.
Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush into northern India. There his troops faced soldiers mounted on war
elephants. They were forced to retreat.
While planning his next battle campaign, Alexander died of a sudden fever. Three generals divided up the
The Hellenistic World In 334 B.C. Alexander crossed into Asia Minor
to begin his conquest of Persia, the largest empire to date.
The conquests of Alexander the Great spread Greek civilization throughout the Mediterranean world and across the Middle East to the outskirts of India.
Greek culture blended with Persian, Egyptian, and Indian cultures to create the Hellenistic civilization, in which art, science, mathematics, and philosophy flourished.
In 323 BC, at the age of thirty-three, Alexander fell into a fever and died in Babylon on his way back from India.
Alexander the Great
Empire of Alexander the Great
The Legacy of Alexander Although Alexander’s empire did not last, he had unleashed changes that would ripple across the Mediterranean world and the Middle East for centuries.
Alexander’s most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture.
Across the empire, local people assimilated, or absorbed, Greek ideas. In turn, Greek settlers adopted local customs.
Gradually, a blending of eastern and western cultures occurred.
Alexander had encouraged this blending by marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian customs.
Great Minds of the Hellenistic Period Zeno founded Stoicism, which urged people to accept calmly
whatever life brought.
Pythagoras derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a triangle.
Euclid wrote The Elements, a textbook that became the basis for modern geometry.
Aristarchus theorized about a heliocentric, or sun-centered, solar system.
Eratosthenes showed that the Earth was round and accurately calculated its circumference.
Archimedes used principles of physics to make practical inventions, such as the lever and the pulley.
Hippocrates studied illnesses and cures and set ethical standards for medical care.
324 – 100 B.C.E.
By: Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H.S. Chappaqua, NY
Alexander the Great 356-323 B.C.E.
Alexander the Great’s Empire
Alexander the Great in Persia
Building Greek Cities in the East
Pergamum: A New “Hellenistic” City
Trade in the Hellenistic World
Library at Alexandria (333 B.C.E.)
Hellenic vs. Hellenistic Art
ignore social conventions & avoid luxuries.
citizens of the world.
live a humble, simple life.
avoid pain & seek pleasure.
all excess leads to pain!
politics should be avoided.
nature is the expansion of divine will.
concept of natural law.
get involved in politics, not for personal gain, but to perform virtuous acts for the good of all.
true happiness is found in great achievements.
The “Known” World – 3c B.C.E.
Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences
Scientists / Mathematicians:
Aristarchus heliocentric theory.
Ptolemy geocentric theory.
Ptolemaic View of the Universe
The Breakup of Alexander’s Empire
The Incursion of Rome into the Hellenistic World
By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H.S. Chappaqua, NY
The Geography of Greece
Bronze Age Greece
Crete: Minoan Civilization
(Palace at Knossos)
Knossos: Minoan Civilization
The Mycenaean Civilization
Homer: The “Heroic Age”
The Mask of Agamemnon