Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Develop a 2-4 page scholarly paper in which you describe the diagnosis you researched for the previous assessment, and then identify and analyze credible evidence that could b - Writingforyou

Develop a 2-4 page scholarly paper in which you describe the diagnosis you researched for the previous assessment, and then identify and analyze credible evidence that could b

see below

KE 4030 assesement 2


Develop a 2-4 page scholarly paper in which you describe the diagnosis you researched for the previous assessment, and then identify and analyze credible evidence that could be used as the basis for applying EBP to the issue.

Collapse All


The goal of using evidence-based research findings is to enhance safety and quality of patient care and ensure optimal outcomes are achieved. It is not uncommon to hear a nurse say, "why change it as we've always done it this way." However, this is no longer acceptable in today's practice environment. The profession of nursing has evolved, and the expectation is that the professional nurse has a scientific foundation to support the care that is provided. As the profession of nursing continues to evolve and engage in health care transformation, baccalaureate-prepared nurses are expanding taking on leadership roles that include incorporating EBPs. To be able to do this, the nurse needs to understand the criteria and makes a resource credible, as this is crucial when deciding if the research is valid and reliable for implementation into health care settings. The nurse will need to incorporate the use of evidence-based practice models. EBP models are designed to assist the nurse in developing a plan to gather evidence to answer a practice problem or question. It is a systematic approach to direct the user to incorporate scholarly findings into current practice. These EBP models lead the nurse through the decision-making process of evaluating the literature to determine the best practice evidence for the practice issue or question.

It would be an excellent choice to complete the Vila Health Determining the Credibility of Evidence activity prior to developing the report. The activity is a media simulation that offers an opportunity to review a scenario and work on determining the credibility of presented evidence. These skills will be necessary to complete Assessment 2 successfully. This media simulation is one potential source of context on which to base your assessment submission. This will take just a few minutes of your time and is not graded.

Professional Context

As a baccalaureate-prepared nurse, you will be responsible for locating and identifying credible and scholarly resources to incorporate the best available evidence for the purposes of enhancing clinical reasoning and judgement skills. When reliable and relevant evidence-based findings are utilized, patients, health care systems, and nursing practice outcomes are positively impacted.


For this assessment, use the specific diagnosis/health issue you selected for the first assessment.


The purpose of this analysis is to better understand what constitutes credibility of journal articles as well as websites. The role of the baccalaureate-prepared nurse in incorporating evidence-based research continues to growth in clinical practice. As quality improvement (QI) measures to reduce safety risks continue to be emphasized, the need for evidence-based models and evidence-based templates is growing. This type of systematic approach to incorporating evidence-based findings allows nurses to make clinical and operational decisions based upon the best available evidence. When the most up-to-date evidence-based findings are utilized, patient-centered care improves outcomes and enhances the patient experience.

Below is a quick review table of several well-known Evidence-Based Practice Models used to guide exploration:

Evidence-Based Practice Models

Iowa Model of Evidence-Based PracticeStetler ModelOttawa ModelPARiHS (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services) ModelACE (Academic Center for Evidence-Based Practice) Star ModelARCC (Advancing Research and Clinical Practice Through Close Collaboration) ModeJohn Hopkins ModelKTA (Knowledge-to-Action) Model

For this assessment:

  • Explain the criteria that should be used when determining the credibility of journal articles as well as websites.
  • Support your explanations with references to the literature or research articles that describe criteria that should be used to determine credibility.
    • Your identification and determination of credibility should be done within the context of your chosen diagnosis for this assessment. Your initial identification of resources should be of resources that will best help address the presented diagnosis you selected. Since you are locating resources to help provide evidence-based care for the diagnosis/health care issue you identified in the first assessment, you may want to begin your literature and evidence search from the databases that were identified.

Be sure to address the following in this assessment, which correspond to the grading criteria in the scoring guide. Please study the scoring guide carefully so that you will know what is needed for a distinguished score.

  • Describe a chosen diagnosis that could benefit from an evidence-based approach.
  • Explain criteria that should be considered when determining credibility of resources such as journal articles and websites.
  • Analyze the credibility and relevance of evidence and resources within the context of a chosen diagnosis.
    • This is where you are selecting the specific resources to help address the diagnosis you selected for the first assessment.
  • Identify the Evidence-Based Practice model and explain the importance of incorporating credible evidence into the EBP model used to address a chosen diagnosis. Review the literature below and choose the appropriate model for your diagnosis.
  • Communicate using writing that is clear, logical, and professional with correct grammar and spelling using current APA style.

Additional Requirements

Your assessment should meet the following requirements:

  • Length of submission: 2-4-page scholarly paper, this does not include the APA-formatted title page and reference list.
  • Number of references: Cite 3-5 sources of scholarly or professional evidence that support your findings and considerations. Resources should be no more than five years old.
  • APA formatting: References and citations are formatted according to current APA style.

Portfolio Prompt: Remember to save the final assessment to your ePortfolio so that you may refer to it as you complete the final capstone course.

Competencies Measured

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

  • Competency 2: Analyze the relevance and potential effectiveness of evidence when making a decision.
    • Explain criteria that should be considered when determining credibility of resources such as journal articles and websites.
    • Analyze the credibility and relevance of evidence and resources within the context of a quality or safety issue, or a chosen diagnosis.
  • Competency 3: Apply an evidence-based practice model to address a practice issue.
    • Identify an evidence-based practice model (such as Iowa, Stetler, John Hopkins, etc.) and explain the importance of incorporating credible evidence into an EBP model used to address a quality or safety issue, or a chosen diagnosis/health care issue.
  • Competency 4: Plan care based on the best available evidence.
    • Describe a quality or safety issue, or a chosen diagnosis, that could benefit from an evidence-based approach.
  • Competency 5: Apply professional, scholarly communication strategies to lead practice changes based on evidence.
    • Organize content so ideas flow logically with smooth transitions; contains few errors in grammar/punctuation, word choice, and spelling.
    • Apply APA formatting to in-text citations and references exhibiting nearly flawless adherence to APA format.


Selecting a Model for Evidence-Based Practice Changes A Practical Approach

AACN Advanced Critical Care

Volume 19, Number 3, pp.291–300

© 2008, AACN

Anna Gawlinski, DNSc, RN, FAAN

Dana Rutledge, PhD, RN

Evidence-based practice models have been

developed to help nurses move evidence into

practice. Use of these models leads to an organ-

ized approach to evidence-based practice, pre-

vents incomplete implementation, and can

maximize use of nursing time and resources.

No one model of evidence-based practice is

present that meets the needs of all nursing envi-

ronments. This article outlines a systematic

process that can be used by organizations to

select an evidence-based practice model that

best meets the needs of their institution.

Keywords: evidence-based practice models,

evidence-based practice, models


Factors related to patient safety, quality, and evidence-based practice (EBP) are driving

changes in healthcare. Nurses are interested in how to move good evidence into practice to optimize patients’ outcomes; thus, nurses may benefit from understanding more about EBP models. These models have been developed to help nurses conceptualize moving evidence into practice. They can assist nurses in focusing efforts derived either from clinical problems or from “good ideas” toward actual implementa- tion in a specific practice setting. Use of EBP models leads to systematic approaches to EBP, prevents incomplete implementation, promotes timely evaluation, and maximizes use of time and resources.

This article describes a systematic process for organizations to use as a template for choosing an EBP nursing model. Strategies for involving staff nurses and clinical and administrative leaders are discussed. Finally, a summary of key EBP nursing models is presented.

Creating Structures or Forums for Discussions The first step in selecting a model is to estab- lish a structure or a forum in which presenta-

Anna Gawlinski is Director, Evidence-Based Practice, and

Adjunct Professor, Ronald Reagan University of California, Los

Angeles Medical Center & University of California, Los Angeles

School of Nursing, 757 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA

90095 ([email protected]).

Dana Rutledge is Professor, Department of Nursing, California

State University Fullerton; and Nursing Research Facilitator,

Saint Joseph Hospital, Irvine, California.

tions and discussions can occur about various EBP models, their advantages and disadvan- tages, and their applicability to organizational needs. Several possible strategies include:

• use of an existing nursing research commit- tee in which selection of an EBP model is added to annual goals and activities;

• formation of an EBP council, with an initial task of selecting an EBP model;

• appointment of a task force charged with selecting an EBP model;

• use of an educational event to increase knowledge about EBP models while facili- tating the selection of a model appropriate for the organization; and

• use of a focus group process to select an EBP model consistent with the philosophy, vision, and mission of the organization.1

AACN1903_291-300 16/7/08 09:05 PM Page 291



Any of these strategies could help “set the stage” for an organization to choose an EBP model. For example, the authors used an existing nursing research committee/council to begin the process of selecting an EBP model in 2 different settings. In a third hospital, a multidisciplinary EBP council took on the task of selecting an EBP model. Regardless of the structure or the forum used, a thoughtful and systematic process is helpful.

Composition of the Committee or the Group The second step to identifying an EBP model is to carefully consider appropriate members of the committee or the group. Administrative and clinical leaders such as nurse managers, clinical nurse specialists, and nurse educators should be represented, as should interested staff nurses. Staff nurses who are clinical resources in their units, share an interest in improving patient care, or are curious about research are likely members. The educational level of the committee members should reflect that of nurses within the department or the institution and will most commonly include nurses with associate, bachelor’s, and master’s degrees. In addition, members should repre- sent the various clinical units/departments or specialties within the institution.

Involvement of persons with special expert- ise in research or EBP, such as a nurse researcher or faculty member from a local unit, hospital, or school of nursing, may be especially helpful. These persons may be internal or external to the organization and have valuable expertise in EBP nursing models. They can function as active members or as consultants. A librarian member may also be useful in retrieving needed publications to evaluate selected models.

The evaluation process and the number of EBP models that are considered can influence the desirable number of committee members. For example, at one institution (a university academic hospital), the nursing research council selected 7 EBP nursing models for review and evaluation. Table 1 lists the mod- els and shows the criteria used to evaluate them. These 7 models were chosen for evalua- tion either because they were commonly men- tioned in publications about EBP nursing models or because they were identified by committee members. At another institution (a community hospital), the nursing research council selected 4 EBP nursing models to eval-

uate on the basis of council members’ knowl- edge of the models’ utility and potential fit with the organization.

Involvement of all committee members in the evaluation process is vital. Using a process where 2 or 3 persons volunteer to review and present 1 to 2 EBP nursing models can get all members involved. Staff nurses can be paired with administrative or clinical leaders in teams of 2 to 3 persons. All committee members can then participate in the process of evaluating models by attending presentations about each model and actively participating in discus- sions. By having small groups present each model, the workload is divided among group members. The more people involved in the process, the greater the need for coordination and oversight by the chairperson.

Organizing the First Meeting Once the group has been selected, the next step is to organize the first meeting so that clear communication about the roles and responsibilities of team members can occur. The chairperson or the leader can survey the group members to determine the optimal date, time, and comfortable location for this meet- ing. Because of the nature of the work involved in selecting a model, 2 hours is an optimal duration for meetings. An agenda should accompany the meeting invitations and initially will include items such as discussions of the purpose and goals of the committee and the roles and responsibilities of committee members (Table 2). Providing a brief reading assignment that gives an overview of EBP models and should be completed before the first meeting is advisable. The chairperson can request committee members who are already knowledgeable about EBP models to highlight parts of the reading assignment at the first meeting to promote discussion. The chairper- son should also collaborate with unit leaders to ensure that staff nurses have appropriate release time for meetings.

Roles and Responsibilities of Committee or Members At the first meeting, roles and responsibilities of the members for reviewing, presenting, and evaluating each EBP model should be addressed. Assignments and due dates are determined to ensure steady progress. For example, a member can elect to work in a small group to review the literature on an EBP

AACN1903_291-300 16/7/08 09:05 PM Page 292



Table 1: Evaluation Criteria and Scoring for 7 Models of Evidence-Based Practice Changesa

Evaluation Criteria for EBP Model

Purpose of Project: Evaluation and selection of an EBP model for the Nursing Department of Ronald

Reagan University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center.

1. Search, retrieve, and synthesize the current literature describing EBP models to help staff nurses use

EBP concepts and apply them in clinical practice.

2. Recommend the adoption of a specific EBP model for use by UCLA nurses.

Scoring system: 0 � not present; �1 � present/yes; �2 � highly present/yes

Criteria Models

1. Concepts and organization of model are

clear and concise

2. Diagrammatic representation of the

model allows quick assimilation of

concepts and organizes the steps in the

process of EBP changes

3. The model is comprehensive from

beginning stages through implementation

and evaluation of outcomes

4. The model is easy to use when

concepts are applied to direct EBP

changes and practice issues in clinical


5. The model is general and can be applied

to various populations of patients,

EBP projects, and department initiatives

and programs

6. The model can be easily applied to

typical practice issues as evidenced

with practice scenario or in published




EBP Model: Strengths:


EBP Model: Strengths:


EBP Model: Strengths:


EBP Model: Strengths:


EBP Model: Strengths:


a Used with permission from the Evidence-Based Practice Program, Nursing Department at Ronald Reagan University of California, Los

Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

AACN1903_291-300 16/7/08 09:05 PM Page 293



model. Work teams should be assigned a pres- entation date to present details of the reviewed EBP model to committee members. Presenta- tions of each EBP model may take 30 to 45 minutes and might include information on the history and development of the EBP model (who, what, when, where, and how), revision of the model over time, overall concepts in the EBP model, the process and flow of the EBP model, and publications describing how the model guided EBP changes in other facilities.

Each presentation of an EBP model can be followed by 10 or 15 minutes for group mem- bers to raise questions and discuss specific aspects of the EBP model. After the presenta- tion and discussion, group members could review an example of how the EBP model might be applied in a realistic practice scenario that requires consideration of a practice change (Table 3). Group members could then use the EBP model under discussion to address the practice issue. Depending on the group’s size, this work can be done in small groups, with each small group slated to report back to the larger group its opinion about how the model “worked.” It is recommended that groups break into smaller groups of 2 or 3 persons to “rate” the models’ applicability on the basis of predetermined criteria (Table 4). Criteria for evaluating the applicability of the EBP model

should include clarity of the EBP model con- cepts and diagrammatic representation, appli- cability of the EBP model to clinical practice issues for diverse patient care situations in the institution, ease and user-friendliness of the EBP model, and the ability of the EBP model to pro- vide direction for all phases of the EBP process.

Table 1 shows an example of an evaluation tool that can be used by committee members when reviewing each EBP model. After the evaluation instrument is administered and scored, committee members can compare and contrast the ratings, strengths, and weaknesses for addressing the practice scenarios, and potential adoption by the institution for each model is reviewed.

The use of a structured process provides members with little or no background in evalu- ating an EBP model to learn about EBP models and have greater participation and support in the evaluation process. The link of the EBP model to practice is clear when the practice sce- nario is used. Members increase their knowl- edge and skills in using EBP models for practice changes and become champions for the adop- tion of a model within the organization.

Finally, the ongoing work of the committee should be communicated through forums such as mass e-mails, newsletters, posters, nursing grand rounds, and other continuing education programs. Such communication helps dissemi- nate the process used in selecting a model for the organization, while inviting others to par- ticipate via comments and feedback.

Summary of Selected EBP Nursing Models A number of EBP models have been devel- oped; many appear very different from each other. Some of these models are more useful in some contexts than others, and each has advantages and disadvantages. The following steps or phases are common to most models:

• Identification of a clinical problem or poten- tial problem

• Gathering of best evidence • Critical appraisal and evaluation of evi-

dence; when appropriate, determination of a potential change in practice

• Implementation of the practice change • Evaluation of practice change outcomes,

both in terms of adherence to processes and planned outcomes (eg, clinical, fiscal, administrative)

Table 2: Example of Agenda Items for the First Evidence-Based Practice Committee or Group Meeting

Welcome and introduce members

Review agenda

Discuss the goals of the committee

Discuss roles and responsibilities of committee


Select models for evaluation

Discuss the process for presenting and evaluating

evidence-based practice models

Make assignments and schedule

Identify resources and forms

Identify strategies to communicate ongoing

committee work to the department

Open discussion of other items

Plan for next meeting

AACN1903_291-300 16/7/08 09:05 PM Page 294



Table 3: Sample Practice Scenario for Evaluating Applicability of Models for Evidence- Based Practice Changesa

Scenario for Application of Evidence-Based Practice Nursing Models

Note: The following scenario includes selected literature on the subject for the purpose of providing a

clinical practice issue for use when applying EBP models. The following does not include an extensive or

integrated review of the literature on the subject.

Clinical Issue Suctioning patients who have endotracheal and tracheal tubes is a frequent and important nursing intervention.

These tubes interrupt the normal mucociliary system and can result in a patient’s inability to mobilize and

expectorate secretions).13 Suctioning is an intervention that has beneficial effects such as removal of secretions,

maintenance of airway patency, and promotion of optimal ventilation and oxygenation.13

It is common practice for nurses and other healthcare providers to instill 3 to 10 mL of sodium chloride

in the endotracheal or tracheal tubes before suctioning.14 The action of sodium chloride is believed to

loosen and thin secretions, stimulate a cough, and lubricate the suction catheter.13,15,16

Research and Evidence-Based Literature Results of research on the benefits of sodium chloride instillation have been inconclusive.13,17–23 In fact,

studies indicate that this practice may result in the following adverse outcomes:

• Interferes with the alveolar-capillary oxygen exchange, causing a decrease in oxygen saturation,

• Increases rate of respiration,

• Increases the risk of infection by dislodging significantly more bacterial colonies, and

• Increases intracranial pressure.13,19,21,22

Furthermore, patients can panic or feel as though they are drowning during routine instillation of

sodium chloride via endotracheal or tracheal tubes.24

Research results indicate that mucus and sodium chloride solution are immiscible.13,17 Therefore, it is

unlikely that instillation of sodium chloride loosens secretions and aids in the expectoration of airway

secretions.13 The application of heat and humidification to the airway and the use of sodium chloride

nebulizers are effective in thinning secretions and promoting airway clearance.13,23

Nursing Staff and EBP Process The nurses in your unit have recently heard a lecture presenting the lack of evidence supporting the

routine use of instillation of sodium chloride before suctioning patients with endotracheal and tracheal

tubes and the potential deleterious effects. They are questioning this practice and come to you as the unit

manager or the clinical nurse specialist to help them with considering a change in this practice.

Reflect on this EBP model to guide you through the steps to help your staff with this EBP change project.

a Used with permission from the Evidence-Based Practice Program, Nursing Department, Ronald Reagan University of California, Los Angeles

Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Table 4: Criteria for Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practice Models to Meet Institutional Needs

Concepts and organization of the model are clear and concise

Diagrammatic representation of the model allows quick assimilation of concepts and organizes the steps

in the process of EBP changes

Model is comprehensive from beginning stages to implementation and evaluation of outcomes

Model is easy to use when concepts are applied to direct EBP changes and practice issues in clinical settings

Model is general and can be applied to various populations of patients, EBP projects, and department

initiatives and programs

Model can be easily applied to typical practice issues as evidenced with practice scenario or in the

published literature

Abbreviation: EBP, evidence-based practice.

AACN1903_291-300 16/7/08 09:05 PM Page 295



The following paragraphs describe several EBP models that are often considered for use in hospitals (Tables 5 and 6). These models were selected on the basis of the following criteria: (1) they commonly appear in nurs- ing publications about EBP models; (2) pub- lished reports support their use to guide EBP changes in the clinical setting; (3) institutions (hospitals or schools of nursing) use the model; and (4) the models are intended to be used by nurses as they set out to find and use evidence to enhance patients’ or organiza- tions’ outcomes. Table 5 describes selected EBP models that have specific steps or phases to guide the EBP process. Table 6 identifies key components of EBP models that do not have specific steps or phases but help describe and conceptualize the many variables and interactions that occur when making EBP practice changes.

One of the oldest models that has recently been revised to include EBP outcomes is Stetler’s EBP model.2 This model is one of the few that does not focus entirely on formal changes led by

nurses in organizational settings, suggesting use by individual nurses as well. Developed as a model for nurses within an East Coast hospital, Stetler’s model promotes use of both internal (eg, data from quality improvement, opera- tional, or evaluation projects) and external (primary research evidence and consensus of national experts) evidence. Stetler’s model con- sists of 5 phases, ranging from searching for evi- dence about a clinical problem to formal and/or informal evaluations. Decision making about whether a practice change should be made includes consideration of substantiating evi- dence, setting fit, feasibility, and current practice.

Developed as a model to promote quality care, the Iowa model of EBP has been used in multiple academic and clinical settings.3 This model melds quality improvement with research utilization in an algorithm that nurses find intuitively understandable. Unique to the Iowa model is the concept of “triggers” of EBP. Evidence-based practice may be spurred by a clinical problem or by knowledge coming from

Table 5: Selected Evidence-Based Practice Nursing Models and Key Components




Iowa Model3



1 Trigger: Problem

or new knowledge

2 Organizational


3 Team formation

4 Evidence gathered

5 Research base

critiqued and


6 Sufficient?

7 Pilot change

8 Decision?

9 Widespread


with continual

monitoring of


10 Dissemination

of results

Stetler’s Model2

At individual nurse

or organizational


1 Preparation

2 Validation

3 Comparative


4 Decision making

5 Translation/


6 Evaluation

Rosswurm and Larrabee’s Model4

Organizational process

1 Assess need for

change in practice

2 Link problem

interventions and


3 Synthesize best


4 Design practice


5 Implement and

evaluate change

in practice

6 Integrate and


Johns Hopkins Nursing Model5



1 Practice question


2 Evidence gathered

3 Translation:

Plan, implement,

evaluate, and


ACE Star Model of Knowledge Transformation6



1 Knowledge


2 Evidence


3 Translation into



4 Integration into


5 Evaluation

AACN1903_291-300 16/7/08 09:05 PM Page 296



outside an organization. Either of these triggers can set an EBP project into motion. Thereafter, the model delineates 3 key decision points during the process of making a practice change: (1) Is there an institutional reason to focus on this problem or use this knowledge? (2) Is there a sufficient research base? (3) Is the change appropriate for adoption in practice? At 2 of these points, users must focus on the realities within an organizational context; the third point infers the possibility that evidence is not sufficient and thus that a research study may be needed or other evidence sought.

Rosswurm and Larrabee4 developed a 6-step model for change in EBP that aims for integration of EBP into a care delivery sys- tem. The initial need for change is deter- mined by comparing internal data such as quality indicators with data from outside the organization. When possible, this problem is

linked to standard interventions and out- comes. Research and contextual evidence are sought to solve the problem and combined with clinical judgment. With sufficient evi- dence, a practice protocol is developed and a pilot test done to determine effects on out- comes. With widespread implementation, both processes (eg, staff adherence to the change) and clinical outcomes are evaluated. The practice change is maintained by using theoretically derived diffusion strategies.

The Johns Hopkins Nursing EBP model was developed in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Hospital and the Johns Hopkins Uni- versity School of Nursing.5 To ensure that cur- rent research findings were incorporated into patient care, nursing administrative leaders from Johns Hopkins Hospital developed a model for the department of nursing. The resulting model addressed the following 3

Table 6: Select Evidence-Based Practice Frameworks

Abbreviations: ARCC, Advancing Research and Clinical Practice through Close Collaboration; EBP, evidence-based practice; PARIHS, Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services.

Key focus

Key concepts

Major proposition



ARCC Model7–9

Organization of department or unit

EBP mentor—an individual who has

expert knowledge and skills in

EBP and the passion to help

others practice daily from an

evidence base

The development of APNs and other

nurses as EBP mentors facilitates

an organizational culture change

toward evidence-based care

Need to…

• assess and organize culture and

readiness for EBP

• identify strengths and major

barriers to EBP implementation

• implement ARCC strategies

• develop and use EBP mentors

• interactive EBP skill-building


• make EBP rounds and form

journal clubs

• implement EBP

• improve patient, nurse, and

system outcomes

PARIHS Framework10,11

Understanding key components of EBP




Practice changes are most likely when

they are based upon robust evidence,

conducted in a context “friendly” to

change, and facilitated well

Need to…

• critically appraise evidence

• thoroughly understand the

practice arena before implementing

a change

• make a strategic plan for

facilitation of any practice change—

from development to

implementation and evaluation

AACN1903_291-300 16/7/08 09:05 PM Page 297



domains of professional nursing: nursing prac- tice, education, and research. The model incorporates use of available evidence as a core component for decision making within these domains. Guidelines for the model reflect the “PET” process, an acronym that stands for practice question, evidence, and translation. First, a team identifies an impor- tant practice question. The team gat